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Components of flow

張貼者: david 星期日, 4月 08, 2007

Csikszentmihalyi 在Beyond Boredom an Anxiety,SanFrancisco:Josey-Bass. (1975. p.72)中認為構成flow experience 的元件如下:

  • Clear goals (expectations and rules are discernible).
  • Concentrating and focusing, a high degree of concentration on a limited field of attention (a person engaged in the activity will have the opportunity to focus and to delve deeply into it).
  • A loss of the feeling of self-consciousness, the merging of action and awareness.
  • Distorted sense of time - one's subjective experience of time is altered.
  • Direct and immediate feedback (successes and failures in the course of the activity are apparent, so that behavior can be adjusted as needed).
  • Balance between ability level and challenge (the activity is neither too easy nor too difficult).
  • A sense of personal control over the situation or activity.
  • The activity is intrinsically rewarding, so there is an effortlessness of action.
  • When in the flow state, people become absorbed in their activity, and focus of awareness is narrowed down to the activity itself, action awareness merging

Not all are needed for flow to be experienced.

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